Block/local scope

A name has local scope or block scope if it is declared in a block. A name with local scope can be used in that block and in blocks enclosed within that block, but the name must be declared before it is used. When the block is exited, the names declared in the block are no longer available.

Parameter names for a function have the scope of the outermost block of that function. Also, if the function is declared and not defined, these parameter names have function prototype scope.

When one block is nested inside another, the variables from the outer block are usually visible in the nested block. However, if the declaration of a variable in a nested block has the same name as a variable that is declared in an enclosing block, the declaration in the nested block hides the variable that was declared in the enclosing block. The original declaration is restored when program control returns to the outer block. This is called block visibility.

Name resolution in a local scope begins in the immediate scope in which the name is used and continues outward with each enclosing scope. The order in which scopes are searched during name resolution causes the phenomenon of information hiding. A declaration in an enclosing scope is hidden by a declaration of the same identifier in a nested scope.

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